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EXCALIBOR: Empirical and experimental calibration of the temperature dependence of stable and clumped isotopes in apatite

Empirical and experimental Investigation of the temperature dependence of isotope clumping in biogenic and authigenic apatite


  • Gussone, N., M. E. Böttcher, A. C. Conrad, J. Fiebig, M. Peltz, G. Grathoff and B. C. Schmidt (2020). Calcium isotope fractionation upon experimental apatite formation. Chem. Geol. 551: 119737, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2020.119737
  • Zwicker, J., D. Smrzka, F. Steindl, M. E. Böttcher, E. Libowitzky, S. Kiel and J. Peckmann (2021). Mineral authigenesis within chemosynthetic microbial mats: Coated grain formation and phosphogenesis at a Cretaceous hydrocarbon seep, New Zealand. Depos. Rec. 7: 294-310, doi: 10.1002/dep2.123
  • Löffler, N., J. Fiebig, A. Mulch, T. Tütken, B. C. Schmidt, D. Bajnai, A. C. Conrad, U. Wacker and M. E. Böttcher (2019). Refining the temperature dependence of the oxygen and clumped isotopic compositions of structurally bound carbonate in apatite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 253: 19-38, doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2019.03.002
  • Wacker, U., T. Rutz, N. Löffler, A. C. Conrad, T. Tütken, M. E. Böttcher and J. Fiebig (2016). Clumped isotope thermometry of carbonate-bearing apatite: revised sample pre-treatment, acid digestion, and temperature calibration. Chem. Geol. 443: 97-110, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2016.09.009