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SFB-TRR: SFB/TRR 181 Energietransfer in der Atmosphäre und im Ozean

The energy transfers between the three dynamical regimes (small-scale turbulence, internal gravity waves and geostrophically balanced motion) are fundamental to the energy cycle of both the atmosphere and the ocean. Nonetheless, they are poorly understood and quanti fied, and their representation in state-of-the-art Earth system models is unsatisfactory. Since the interactions of the dynamical regimes ultimately link the smallest scales to the largest scales by a variety of complex processes, understanding these interactions is mandatory to construct atmosphere and ocean models and to predict climate. The current lack of understanding is refl ected by energetically inconsistent models with relatively large biases, but also paralleled by inconsistencies of a numerical and mathematical nature. We believe that it is now time to combine recent e fforts to overcome these de ficiencies, to foster new activities to understand the dynamical interactions, and to improve the consistency of ocean and atmosphere models. Through the knowledge gained in the CRC, we hope to reduce the biases and to increase the skill of atmosphere and ocean models, and ultimately to improve climate models and climate predictions. The main aims of this CRC are
i) to develop the necessary understanding of the energy transfers between the di fferent dynamical regimes of the atmosphere and the ocean,
ii) to develop, test and implement with this understanding new and consistent parameterisations in models, and
iii) to develop numerical methods featuring consistent energetics.
It is our vision to subsequently establish an energetically consistent framework of energy conversions in the climate system, and to develop physically, mathematically and numerically consistent models for both the atmosphere and the ocean.


  • Chang, Y., X. Li, Y. P. Wang, K. Klingbeil, W. Li, F. Zhang and H. Burchard (2024). Salinity mixing in a tidal multi-branched estuary with huge and variable runoff. J. Hydrol. 634: 131094, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2024.131094
  • Schmitt, M., H. T. Pham, S. Sarkar, K. Klingbeil and L. Umlauf (2024). Diurnal Warm Layers in the ocean: Energetics, non-dimensional scaling, and parameterization. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 54: 1037–1055, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-23-0129.1
  • Klingbeil, K. and E. Henell (2023). A rigorous derivation of the water mass transformation framework, the relation between mixing and diasurface exchange flow, and links to recent theories in estuarine research. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 53: 2953-2968, doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-23-0130.1
  • Shevchenko, R., C. Hohenegger and M. Schmitt (2023). Impact of diurnal warm layers on atmospheric convection. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 128: e2022JD038473, doi: 10.1029/2022JD038473
  • Umlauf, L., K. Klingbeil, H. Radtke, R. Schwefel, J. Bruggeman and P. Holtermann (2023). Hydrodynamic control of sediment-water fluxes: Consistent parameterization and impact in coupled benthic-pelagic models. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 128: e2023JC019651, doi: 10.1029/2023JC019651
  • Henell, E., H. Burchard, U. Gräwe and K. Klingbeil (2023). Spatial composition of the diahaline overturning circulation in a fjord-type, non-tidal estuarine system. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 128: e2023JC019862, doi: 10.1029/2023JC019862
  • Reinert, M., M. Lorenz, K. Klingbeil, B. Büchmann and H. Burchard (2023). High-resolution simulations of the plume dynamics in an idealized 79°N Glacier Cavity using adaptive vertical coordinates. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 15: e2023MS003721, doi: 10.1029/2023MS003721
  • Klingbeil, K., E. Deleersnijder, O. Fringer and L. Umlauf (2022). Basic equations of marine flows. In: The Mathematics of Marine Modelling: Water, Solute and Particle Dynamics in Estuaries and Shallow Seas. Ed. by H. Schuttelaars, A. Heemink and E. Deleersnijder. Cham: Springer International Publishing: 1-9, 978-3-031-09559-7, doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-09559-7_1
  • Chrysagi, E., N. B. Basdurak, L. Umlauf, U. Gräwe and H. Burchard (2022). Thermocline salinity minima due to wind-driven differential advection. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 127: e2022JC018904, doi: 10.1029/2022JC018904
  • Li, X., M. Lorenz, K. Klingbeil, E. Chrysagi, U. Gräwe, J. Wu and H. Burchard (2022). Salinity mixing and diahaline exchange flow in a large multi-outlet estuary with islands. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 52: 2111-2127, doi: 10.1175/jpo-d-21-0292.1
  • Fofonova, V., T. Kärnä, K. Klingbeil, A. Androsov, I. Kuznetsov, D. Sidorenko, S. Danilov, H. Burchard and K. H. Wiltshire (2021). Plume spreading test case for coastal ocean models. Geosci. Model Dev. 14: 6945-6975, doi: 10.5194/gmd-14-6945-2021
  • Peng, J.-P., J. Dräger-Dietel, R. P. North and L. Umlauf (2021). Diurnal variability of frontal dynamics, instability, and turbulence in a submesoscale upwelling filament. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 51: 2825-2843, doi: 10.1175/jpo-d-21-0033.1
  • Kerimoglu, O., Y. G. Voynova, F. Chegini, H. Brix, U. Callies, R. Hofmeister, K. Klingbeil, C. Schrum and J. E. E. van Beusekom (2020). Interactive impacts of meteorological and hydrological conditions on the physical and biogeochemical structure of a coastal system. Biogeosciences 17: 5097-5127, doi: 10.5194/bg-17-5097-2020
  • Bauer, T. P., P. Holtermann, B. Heinold, H. Radtke, O. Knoth and K. Klingbeil (2021). ICONGETM v1.0-flexible NUOPC-driven two-way coupling via ESMF exchange grids between the unstructured-grid atmosphere model ICON and the structured-grid coastal ocean model GETM. Geosci. Model Dev. 14: 4843-4863, doi: 10.5194/gmd-14-4843-2021
  • Li, Q., J. Bruggeman, H. Burchard, K. Klingbeil, L. Umlauf and K. Bolding (2021). Integrating cvmix into gotm (v6.0): A consistent framework for testing, comparing, and applying ocean mixing schemes. Geosci. Model Dev. 14: 4261-4282, doi: 10.5194/gmd-14-4261-2021
  • Chrysagi, E., L. Umlauf, P. Holtermann, K. Klingbeil and H. Burchard (2021). High-resolution simulations of submesoscale processes in the Baltic Sea: The role of storm events. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 126: e2020JC016411, doi: 10.1029/2020JC016411
  • Lorenz, M., K. Klingbeil and H. Burchard (2021). Impact of evaporation and precipitation on estuarine mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 51: 1319-1333, doi: 10.1175/jpo-d-20-0158.1
  • Burchard, H., U. Gräwe, K. Klingbeil, N. Koganti, X. Lange and M. Lorenz (2021). Effective diahaline diffusivities in estuaries. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 13, doi: 10.1029/2020MS002307
  • Carpenter, J. R., A. Rodrigues, L. K. P. Schultze, L. M. Merckelbach, N. Suzuki, B. Baschek and L. Umlauf (2020). Shear instability and turbulence within a submesoscale front following a storm. Geophys. Res. Lett. 47: e2020GL090365, doi: 10.1029/2020GL090365
  • Schulz, K., K. Klingbeil, C. Morys and T. Gerkema (2021). The fate of mud nourishment in response to short-term wind forcing. Estuar. Coast. 44: 88-102, doi: 10.1007/s12237-020-00767-4
  • Burchard, H. (2020). A universal law of estuarine mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 50: 81-93, doi: 10.1175/jpo-d-19-0014.1
  • Burchard, H., X. Lange, K. Klingbeil and P. MacCready (2019). Mixing estimates for estuaries. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 49: 631-648, doi: 10.1175/jpo-d-18-0147.1
  • Stähler, S. C., M. P. Panning, C. Hadziioannou, R. D. Lorenz, S. Vance, K. Klingbeil and S. Kedar (2019). Seismic signal from waves on Titan's seas. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 520: 250-259, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2019.05.043
  • Lorenz, M., K. Klingbeil, P. MacCready and H. Burchard (2019). Numerical issues of the Total Exchange Flow (TEF) analysis framework for quantifying estuarine circulation. Ocean Sci. 15: 601-614, doi: 10.5194/os-15-601-2019
  • Klingbeil, K., J. Becherer, E. Schulz, H. E. de Swart, H. M. Schuttelaars, A. Valle-Levinson and H. Burchard (2019). Thickness-weighted averaging in tidal estuaries and the vertical distribution of the eulerian residual transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 49: 1809-1826, doi: 10.1175/jpo-d-18-0083.1
  • Lemarié, F., H. Burchard, L. Debreu, K. Klingbeil and J. Sainte-Marie (2019). Advancing dynamical cores of oceanic models across all scales. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 100: ES109-ES115, doi: 10.1175/bams-d-18-0303.1
  • Klingbeil, K., H. Burchard, S. Danilov, C. Goetz and A. Iske (2019). Reducing spurious diapycnal mixing in ocean models. In: Energy transfers in atmosphere and ocean. Ed. by C. Eden and A. Iske. Cham: Springer (Mathematics of Planet Earth ; 1): 245-286, doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-05704-6
  • Slavik, K., C. Lemmen, W. Zhang, O. Kerimoglu, K. Klingbeil and K. W. Wirtz (2019). The large-scale impact of offshore wind farm structures on pelagic primary productivity in the southern North Sea. Hydrobiologia 845: 35-53, doi: 10.1007/s10750-018-3653-5
  • Klingbeil, K., F. Lemarié, L. Debreu and H. Burchard (2018). The numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models: State of the art and future perspectives. Ocean Model. 125: 80-105, doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2018.01.007
  • Frassl, M. A., B. Boehrer, P. L. Holtermann, W. Hu, K. Klingbeil, Z. Peng, J. Zhu and K. Rinke (2018). Opportunities and limits of using meteorological reanalysis data for simulating seasonal to sub-daily water temperature dynamics in a large shallow lake. Water 10: 594, doi: 10.3390/w10050594
  • Lemmen, C., R. Hofmeister, K. Klingbeil, M. H. Nasermoaddeli, O. Kerimoglu, H. Burchard, F. Kösters and K. W. Wirtz (2018). Modular System for Shelves and Coasts (MOSSCO v1.0) - a flexible and multi-component framework for coupled coastal ocean ecosystem modelling. Geosci. Model Dev. 11: 915-935, doi: 10.5194/gmd-11-915-2018
  • Burchard, H., N. B. Basdurak, U. Gräwe, M. Knoll, V. Mohrholz and S. Müller (2017). Salinity inversions in the thermocline under upwelling favorable winds. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44: 1422-1428, doi: 10.1002/2016GL072101