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C-SCOPE: C-SCOPE IOW - Analysis of CO2 uptake and dynamics under the impact of eutrophication by expanding the CO2 observation network in the Baltic Sea

01.01.2021 - 31.12.2024
Project coordinated by:
GEOMAR - Helmholtz Zentrum für Ozeanforschung
Project manager (IOW):
Dr. Henry Bittig
BMBF - Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)
Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (FSU)

By Socializing, COnnecting, Perfecting and Expanding existing or emerging observation networks, C-SCOPE wants to bring marine Carbon observations to a new level.
IOW's contribution (to WP1) comprises as observation component a demonstration study in the Baltic Sea on the synergistic combination of BGC-Argo with an existing Ship of Opportunity Line (SOOP) of the SOCONET/ICOS network. In addition to testing and implementing a pCO2 sensor as a second CO2 parameter on BGC-Argo floats, it will serve to quantify and deepen the understanding of oceanic CO2 uptake in relation to anthropogenic drivers, which will also be achieved through close cooperation between the observation component and ecosystem modelling at IOW.
An improved understanding of CO2 drivers and dynamics as well as associated time scales directly aids in better predicting CO2 uptake capacity as a basis for sustainable management. In order to perfect and expand marine carbon observation as well as to allow the transfer to other coastal marine regions, the demonstration study in the Baltic Sea will be used (in WP3) as a basis for an estimation of optimised observation parameters (qualitative and quantitative) in order to effectively and sustainably determine the CO2 uptake capacity and to detect anthropogenically induced changes at an early stage that allows countermeasures to be taken, if necessary.
The results obtained can then be translated into concrete recommendations for action using existing structures in the Baltic Sea region such as Baltic Earth and HELCOM. Furthermore, they are to be incorporated into a national implementation plan for the sustainable organisation of marine carbon measurements within the framework of ICOS and BGC-Argo in order to provide reliable CO2 data for research and the generation of socially relevant applications.


  • Lauvset, S. K., N. Lange, T. Tanhua, H. C. Bittig, A. Olsen, A. Kozyr, M. Álvarez, K. Azetsu-Scott, P. J. Brown, B. R. Carter, L. Cotrim da Cunha, M. Hoppema, M. P. Humphreys, M. Ishii, E. Jeansson, A. Murata, J. D. Müller, F. F. Pérez, C. Schirnick, R. Steinfeldt, T. Suzuki, A. Ulfsbo, A. Velo, R. J. Woosley and R. M. Key (2024). The annual update GLODAPv2.2023: the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 16: 2047-2072, doi: 10.5194/essd-16-2047-2024
  • Wimart-Rousseau, C., T. Steinhoff, B. Klein, H. Bittig and A. Körtzinger (2024). Technical note: Assessment of float pH data quality control methods - a case study in the subpolar northwest Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences 21: 1191-1211, doi: 10.5194/bg-21-1191-2024
  • Bittig, H. C., E. Jacobs, T. Neumann and G. Rehder (2024). A regional pCO2 climatology of the Baltic Sea from in situ pCO2 observations and a model-based extrapolation approach. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 16: 753-773, doi: 10.5194/essd-16-753-2024
  • Stoer, A. C., Y. Takeshita, T. L. Maurer, C. Begouen Demeaux, H. C. Bittig, E. Boss, H. Claustre, G. Dall’Olmo, C. Gordon, B. J. W. Greenan, K. S. Johnson, E. Organelli, R. Sauzède, C. M. Schmechtig and K. Fennel (2023). A census of quality-controlled Biogeochemical-Argo float measurements. Front. Mar. Sci. 10: 1233289, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2023.1233289
  • Bittig, H. C., Jacobs, E., Neumann, T., & Rehder, G. (2023). A regional pCO2 climatology of the Baltic Sea [Data set]. PANGAEA, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.961119
  • Schoderer, M., H. Bittig, F. Gaill, K. Gjerde, S. J. Heymans, B. Klein, D. Obura, T. Thiele, S. Unger, M. Visbeck, A.-K. Hornidge and T7 Task-Force: Climate and environment (2022). Safeguarding the Blue Planet - Eight recommendations to sustainably use and govern the ocean and its resources. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik.