Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde
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Dr. Oliver Schmale - Publications




  • Halbach P., Koschinsky A., Seifert R., Giere O., Kuhn T., and the shipboard scientific party (Armstrong R., Arndt C., Borowski C., Brasse S.,  Drischel M., Fonseca N. M., Frahm A., Gocke K., Jellinek T., Halbach M., Klingbeil M., Mocek M., Podgorsek L., Rahders E., Richter S., Sander S., Schmale O., Seifert T., Weitzel B., and Wong L. (1999). Diffuse hydrothermal fluid activity, biological communities, and mineral formation in the North Fiji Basin (SW Pacific): Preliminary results of the R/V Sonne cruise SO-134. Inter Ridge News 8 (1): 38-44.

  • Thiel V., Peckmann J., Schmale O., Reitner J., Michaelis W. (2001). A new straight-chain hydrocarbon biomarker associated with anaerobic methan cycling. Organic Geochemistry, 32: 1019-1023.

  • Goedert J. L., Thiel V., Schmale O., Rau W.W., Michaelis W., Peckmann J. (2003). The Late Eocene 'Whiskey Creek' Methane-Seep Deposit (Western Washington State) - Part I: Geology, Palaeontology and Molecular Geobiology. Facies 48: 223-240.
  • Bohrmann G., Ivanov M., Foucher J.-P., Spiess V., Bialas G., Greinert J., Weinrebe W., Abegg F., Aloisi G., Artemov Y., Blinova V., Drews M., Heidersdorf F., Krabbenhöft A., Klaucke I., Krastel S., Leder T., Polikarpov I., Saburova M., Schmale O., Seifert R., Volkonskaya A., and Zillmer M. (2003). Mud volcanoes and gas hydrates in the Black Sea: new data from Dvurechenskii and Odessa mud volcanoes. Geo-Marine Letters 23: 239–249.

  • Schmale O., Greinert J., and Rehder G. (2005). Methane emission from high-intensity marine gas seeps in the Black Sea into the atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters: doi: 10.1029/2004/GL021138.

  • Schubert J. S., Kaiser E., Holzner C. P., Klauser L., Wehrli B., Schmale O., Greinert J., kand Kipfer R. (2005). Methanotrophic microbial community associated with bubble plumes above gas seeps in the Black Sea. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: doi: 10.1029/2005GC001049.

  • Schmale, O. (2006). Submarine Methane Seepage in the Paleo Dnepr Area and Sorokin Trough and its influence on the Black Sea Methane Budget, 146 pp, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel.
  • Schubert C.J., Durisch-Kaiser E., Klauser L., Vazquez F., Wehrli B., Holzner C.P., Kipfer R., Schmale O., Greinert J., Kuypers M.M.M. (2006). Recent studies on sources and sinks of methane in the Black Sea. In: L.N. Neretin (Editor), Past and present water column anoxia. NATO Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences (64). Springer, Netherlands, pp. 419-441.

  • Koschinsky A., Billings A., Devey C., Dubilier N., Duester A., Edge D., Garbe-Schönberg D., German C., Giere O., Keir R., Lackschewitz K., Mai H. A., Marbler H., Mawick J., Melchert B., Mertens C., Peters M., Sander S., Schmale O., Schmidt W., Seifert R., Seiter C., Stöber U., Suck I., Walter M., Weber S., Yoerger D., Zarrouk M., Zielinski F. (2006). Dicovery of the new hydrothermal vents on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (4°S - 10°S) during cruise M68/1. Inter Ridge News 15: 9–15.

  • Borowski C., Asendorf V., Bürk D., Collasius Jr. A., Elder R., Fabian M., Forte P., Fuhrmann R., Hansen S., Jost C.L., Keir R., Kevis-Stirling J., Kevis-Stirling N., Perner M., Petersen J.M., Røy H., Schauer H., Schmale O., Schmidt K., Scott D., Waters R., Wefers P., Wetzel S. (2007). New coordinates for the hydrothermal structures in the Logatchev vent field at 14°45'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Inter Ridge News 16, 13-15.

  • Haase K. M., Petersen S., Koschinsky A., Seifert R., Devey C. W., Keir R., Lackschewitz K. S., Melchert B., Perner M., Schmale O., Süling J., Dubilier N., Zielinski F., Fretzdorff S., Garbe-Schönberg D., Westernströer U., German C. R., Shank T. M., Yoerger D., Giere O., Kuever J., Marbler H., Mawick J., Mertens C., Stöber U., Walter M., Ostertag-Henning C., Paulick H., Peters M., Strauss H., Sander S., Stecher J., Warmuth M., Weber S. (2007). Young volcanism and related hydrothermal activity at 5°S on the slow-spreading southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 8 (11): doi:10.1029/2006GC001509.

  • Keir R. S., Schmale O., Walter, M., Sültenfuß J., Seifert R., Rhein M. (2008). Flux and dispersion of gases from the "Drachenschlund" hydrothermal vent at 8°18'S, 13°30'W. Planetary Science Letters, 270: 338-348.

  • Umlauf L., Tanhua T., Waniek J., Schmale O., Holtermann P., and Rehder G. (2008). Hunting a New Oceanic Tracer, EOS Trans AGU, 89, 419-420.
  • Schmale O., Beuabien S.E., Rehder G., Greinert J., and Lombardi S. (2010). Gas seepage in the Dnepr paleo-delta area (NW-Black Sea) and its regional impact on the water column methane cycle. Journal of Marine Systems, 80, 90-100.

  • Keir R.S., Schmale O., Seifert R., and Sültenfuß J. (2009). Isotope fractionation and mixing in methane plumes from the Logatchev hydrothermal field. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: doi: 10.1029/2009GC002403

  • Schmale O., Schneider von Deimling J., Gülzow W., Nausch G., Waniek J.J., and Rehder G. (2010). Distribution of methane in the water column of the Baltic Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12604, doi:10.1029/2010GL043115

  • Schmale O., M. Haeckel, D.F. McGinnis (2011). Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane. Biogeisciences, 8: 911-918.

  • Holtermann, P. L., Umlauf L., Tanhua T., Schmale O., Rehder G., and Waniek J.J. (2012). The Baltic Sea Tracer Release Experiment: 1. Mixing rates, J. Geophys. Res., 117(C1), C01021.

  • Schmale O., Walter M., Schneider v. Deimling J., Sültenfuß J., Walker S., Rehder G., and Keir R. (2012). Fluid and gas fluxes from the Logatchev hydrothermal vent area, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q07007.
  • Schmale O., Blumenberg M., Kießlich K., Jakobs G., Berndmeyer C., Labrenz M., Thiel V., and Rehder G. (2012), Aerobic methanotrophy within the pelagic redox-zone of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea), Biogeosciences, 9, 4969-4977.
  • Berndmeyer C., Thiel V., Schmale O., and Blumenberg M. (2013). Biomarkers for aerobic methanotrophy in the water column of the stratified Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea), Organic Geochemistry, 55, 103-111.
  • Blumenberg M., Berndmeyer C., Moros M., Muschalla M., Schmale O., and Thiel V. (2013). Bacteriohopanepolyols record stratification, nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemical perturbations in Holocene sediments of the central Baltic Sea, Biogeosciences, 10, 2725-2735.
  • Jakobs G., Rehder G., Jost G., Kießlich K., Labrenz M., and Schmale O. (2013). Comparative studies of pelagic microbial methane oxidation within the redox zones of the Gotland Deep and Landsort Deep (central Baltic Sea), Biogeosciences, 10, 7863-7875.
  • Gülzow W., Gräwe U., Kedziora S., Schmale O., Rehder G.(2014). Seasonal variation of methane in the water column of Arkona and Bornholm Basin, western Baltic Sea, Journal of Marine Systems, 139, 332-347.
  • Jakobs G., Holtermann P., Berndmeyer C., Rehder G., Blumenberg M., Jost G., Nausch G., and Schmale O. (2014). Seasonal and spatial methane dynamics in the water column of the central Baltic Sea (Gotland Sea), Continental Shelf Research, 91, 12-25.
  • Berndmeyer C., Thiel V., Schmale O., Wasmund N., and Blumenberg M. (2014). Biomarkers in the stratified water column of the Landsort Deep (Baltic Sea), Biogeosciences 11: 7009-7023, doi:10.5194/bg-11-7009-2014.
  • Schmale O., Leifer I., Schneider v. Deimling J., Stolle C., Krause S., Kießlich K., Frahm A., and Treude T. (2015). Bubble Transport Mechanism: Indications for a gas bubble-mediated inoculation of benthic methanotrophs into the water column, Cont. Shelf Res., 103, 70-78.
  • Schmale O., Krause S., Holtermann P., Power Guerra N. C., and Umlauf L. (2016). Dense bottom gravity currents and their impact on pelagic methanotrophy at oxic/anoxic transition zones. Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1002/2016GL069032.

  • Jakobs G., Labrenz M., Rehder G., Hietanen S., Kießlich K., Vogts A., Blumenberg M., and Schmale O. (2016). A Bioreactor Approach to Investigate the Linkage between Methane Oxidation and Nitrate/Nitrite Reduction in the Pelagic Oxic-Anoxic Transition Zone of the Central Baltic Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science 3:145.
  • Schmale O., Wäge J., Mohrholz V., Wasmund N., Gräwe U., Rehder G., Labrenz M., and Loick-Wilde N. (2018). The contribution of zooplankton to methane supersaturation in the oxygenated upper waters of the central Baltic Sea. Limnology and Oceanography, 63, 412-430.
  • Stawiarski B., Otto S., Thiel V., Gräwe U., Loick-Wilde N., Wittenborn A.K., Schloemer S., Wäge J., Rehder G., Labrenz M., Wasmund N., and Schmale O. (2019). Controls on zooplankton methane production in the central Baltic Sea. Biogeosciences, 16, 1-16.
  • Wäge J., Strassert J.F.H, Landsberger A., Loick-Wilde N, Schmale O., Stawiarski B., Kreikemeyer B., Michel G. and Labrenz M. (2019). Microcapillary sampling of Baltic Sea copepod gut microbiomes indicates high variability among individuals and the potential for methane production. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 95,
  • Schmale O., Karle M., Glockzin M., and Schneider B. (2019). Potential of Nitrogen/Argon Analysis in Surface Waters in the Examination of Areal Nitrogen Deficits Caused by Nitrogen Fixation. Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 12, 6869-6876.


  • Jordan S.F.A., Treude T., Leifer I., Janßen R., Werner J., Schulz-Vogt H., and Schmale O. (2020). Bubble-mediated transport of benthic microorganisms into the water column: Identification of methanotrophs and implication of seepage intensity on transport efficiency. Scientific Reports 10, 4682.

  • Lohrberg A., Schmale O., Ostrovsky I., Niemann H., Held P., and Schneider von Deimling J. (2020). Discovery and quantification of a widespread methane ebullition event in a coastal inlet (Baltic Sea) using a novel sonar strategy. Scientific Reports 10, 4393.