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  1. Burchard, H., Applied turbulence modelling in marine waters, vol. 100 of Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 229 pp., 2002. [pdf], [erratum document]

Publications in peer reviewed journals

    1. Reinert, M., M. Lorenz, K. Klingbeil, B. Büchmann, and H. Burchard, High-resolution simulations of the plume dynamics in an idealized 79º N Glacier cavity using adaptive vertical coordinates, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., accepted for publication.
    2. Bordbar, M.H., A. Nasrolahi, M. Lorenz, S. Moghaddam, H. Burchard, The Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea: climate variability and trends inferred from satellite observations, Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci., 296, 108588, 2024.
    3. Reese, L., U. Gräwe, K. Klingbeil, X. Li, M. Lorenz, and H. Burchard, Local mixing determines spatial structure of diahaline exchange flow in a mesotidal estuary – a study of extreme runoff conditions, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 54, 3-27, 2024.
    4. Basdurak, N.B., H. Burchard, and H. M. Schuttelaars, A Local Eddy Viscosity Parameterization for Wind-Driven Estuarine Exchange Flow. Part II: Entrainment, Progr. Oceanogr., 219, 103166, 2023.
    5. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, X. Lange and A. Osadchiev, Decomposition of estuarine circulation and residual stratification under land-fast sea ice, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 53, 55-78, 2023.
    6. Henell, E., H. Burchard, U. Gräwe, and K. Klingbeil, Spatial composition of the diahaline overturning circulation in a fjord-type, non-tidal estuarine system, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 128, e2023JC019862, 2023.
    7. Becherer, J., Burchard, H., Carpenter, J.R., Gräwe, U., and Merckelbach, L.M., The role of turbulence in fueling the subsurface chlorophyll maximum in tidally dominated shelf seas., J. Geophys. Res., 127, e2022JC018561, 2022.
    8. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, A. Jenkins, M. Losch, M. Reinert, L. Umlauf, The vertical structure and entrainment of subglacial melt water plumes, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst.,14, e2021MS002925., 2022.
    9. Chysagi, E., N.B. Basduak, L. Umlauf, H. Burchard, Thermocline salinity minima due to wind-driven differential advection, J. Geophys. Res.127, e2022JC018904, 2022,
    10. Kolb, P., Zorndt, A., Burchard, H., Gräwe, U., and Kösters, F., Modelling the impact of anthropogenic measures on saltwater intrusion in the Weser estuary, Ocean Sci., 18, 1725–1739, 2022.
    11. Li, X., M. Lorenz, K. Klingbeil, E. Chrysagi, U. Gräwe, J. Wu, H. Burchard, Diahaline mixing and exchange flow in a large multi-outlet estuary with islands, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 52, 2111-2127, 2022.
    12. Basdurak, N. B., H. Burchard, H. M. Schuttelaars, A local eddy viscosity parameterization for wind-driven estuarine exchange flow. Part I: Stratification dependence, Progr. Oceanogr., 193, 102548, 2021.
    13. Burchard, H., U. Gräwe, K. Klingbeil, N. Koganti, X. Lange, M. Lorenz, Effective diahaline diffusivities in estuaries, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 13,, 2021.
    14. Chrysagi, E., P. L. Holtermann, L. Umlauf, K. Klingbeil, H. Burchard, High-resolution simulations of submesoscale processes in the Baltic Sea: The role of storm events, J. Geophys. Res., 126,, 2021.
    15. Fofonova, V., T. Kärnä, K. Klingbeil, A. Androsov, I. Kuznetsov, D. Sidorenko, S. Danilov, H. Burchard, K. H. Wiltshire, Plume spreading test case for coastal ocean models, Geosci. Model Dev.,14, 6945–6975, 2021.
    16. Li, Q., J. Bruggeman, H. Burchard, K. Klingbeil, L. Umlauf, K. Bolding, Integrating CVMix into GOTM (v6.0): A consistent framework for testing, comparing, and applying ocean mixing schemes, Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 4261–4282, 2021.
    17. Lorenz, M., K. Klingbeil, H. Burchard, Impact of evaporation and precipitation on estuarine mixing relations, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 51,1319–1333,, 2021.
    18. Burchard, H., A universal law of estuarine mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 50, 81-93, 2020.
    19. Chegini, F., P. L. Holtermann, O. Kerimoglu, M. Becker, M. Kreus, K. Klingbeil, U. Gräwe, C. Winter, H. Burchard, Processes of stratification and de-stratification during an extreme river discharge event in the German Bight ROFI, J. Geophys. Res., 125, 10.1029/2019JC015987, 2020.
    20. Lange, X., H. Burchard, K. Klingbeil, Inversions of estuarine circulation are frequent in a weakly tidal estuary with variable wind forcing and seaward salinity fluctuations, J. Geophys. Res., 125, 10.1029/2019JC015789, 2020.
    21. Lorenz, M., K. Klingbeil, H. Burchard, Numerical study of the exchange flow of the Persian Gulf using an extended Total Exchange Flow analysis framework. J. Geophys. Res., 125, 10.1029/2019JC015527, 2020.
    22. Schulz, K., H. Burchard, V. Mohrholz, P. Holtermann, H. Schuttelaars, M. Becker, C. Maushake, T. Gerkema, Intratidal and spatial variability over a slope in the Ems estuary: robust along-channel SPM transport versus episodic events, Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 243, 10.1016/j.ecss.2020.106902, 2020.
    23. van Berkel, J., H. Burchard, A. Christensen, L. O. Mortensen, O. S. Petersen, F. Thomsen, The effects of offshore wind farms on hydrodynamics and implications for fishes. Oceanogr., 33, 108-117, 2020.
    24. Burchard, H., X. Lange, K. Klingbeil, and P. MacCready, Mixing estimates for estuaries, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 631-648, 2019.
    25. Klingbeil, K., J. Becherer, E. Schulz, H. E. de Swart, H. M. Schuttelaars, A. Valle-Levinson, and H. Burchard, Thickness-weighted averaging in tidal estuaries and the vertical distribution of the Eulerian residual transport, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 1809-1826, 2019.
    26. Lange, X., and H. Burchard, The relative importance of wind straining and gravitational forcing in driving exchange flows in tidally energetic estuaries, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 49, 723-736, 2019.
    27. Lemarié, F., H. Burchard, L. Debreu, K. Klingbeil, and J. Sainte-Marie, Advancing dynamical cores of ocean models at all scales, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0303.1, 2019.
    28. Lorenz, M., K. Klingbeil, P. MacCready, and H. Burchard, Numerical issues of the Total Exchange Flow (TEF) analysis framework for quantifying estuarine circulation, Ocean Sci., 15, 601-614, 2019.
    29. Becherer, J., J. Hofstede, U. Gräwe, K. Purkiani, E. Schulz, and H. Burchard, The Wadden Sea in transition - consequences of sea level rise, Ocean Dyn., 68, 131-151, 2018.
    30. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, R. Feistel, U. Gräwe, P. MacCready, K. Klingbeil, V. Mohrholz, L. Umlauf, and E. M. van der Lee, The Knudsen theorem and the Total Exchange Flow analysis framework applied to the Baltic Sea, Progr. Oceanogr., 165, 268-286, 2018.
    31. Burchard, H., H.M. Schuttelaars, and D.K. Ralston, Sediment trapping in estuaries. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 10, 371-395, 2018. [pdf]
    32. Hofstede, J.L.A., J. Becherer, and H. Burchard, Are Wadden Sea tidal systems with a higher tidal range more resilient against sea level rise?, J. Coast. Conserv., doi: 10.1007/s11852-016-0469-1, 2018.
    33. Jurasinski, G., M. Janssen, M. Voss, M. E. Böttcher, M. Brede, H. Burchard, S. Forster, L. Gosch, U. Gräwe, S. Gründling-Pfaff, F. Haider, M. Ibenthal, N. Karow, U. Karsten, M. Kreuzburg, X. Lange, P. Leinweber, G. Massmann, T. Ptak, F. Rezanezhad, G. Rehder, K. Romoth, H. Schade, H. Schubert, H. N. Schulz-Vogt, I. Sokolova, R. Strehse, V. Unger, J. Westphal, B. Lennartz, Understanding the coastal ecocline: Assessing sea-land-interactions at non-tidal, low-lying coasts through interdisciplinary research, Frontiers Mar. Sci, 5, doi: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00342, 2018.
    34. Klingbeil, K., F. Lemarie, L. Debreu, and H. Burchard, The numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models: state of the art and future perspectives, Ocean Modell., 125. 80-105, 2018.
    35. Lemmen, C., R. Hofmeister, K. Klingbeil, M.H. Nasermoaddeli, O. Kerimoglu, H. Burchard, F. Kösters, and K.W. Wirtz, Modular System for Shelves and Coasts (MOSSCO v1.0) – a flexible and multi-component framework for coupled coastal ocean ecosystem modelling, Geosci. Model Devel., 11, 915-935,, 2018.
    36. MacCready, P., W.R. Geyer, and H. Burchard, Estuarine exchange flow is related to mixing through the salinity variance budget, J. Phys. Oceangr., 48, 1375-1384. 2018.
    37. Nasermoaddeli, M.H., C. Lemmen, G . Stigge, O. Kerimoglu, H. Burchard, K. Klingbeil, R. Hofmeister, M. Kreus, K.W. Wirtz, F. Kösters, A model study on the large-scale effect of macrofauna on the suspended sediment concentration in a shallow shelf sea, Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci., 211, 62-76, 2018.
    38. Pätsch, J. , H. Burchard, C. Dieterich, U. Gräwe, M. Gröger, M. Mathis, H. Kapitza, M. Bersch, A. Moll, T. Pohlmann, J. Su, H.T.M. Ho-Hagemann, A. Schulz, A. Elizalde, & C. Eden, An evaluation of the North Sea circulation in global and regional models relevant for ecosystem simulations, Ocean Modell., 116, 70-95, 2017.
    39. Dijkstra, Y. M., H.M. Schuttelaars, H. Burchard, Generation of exchange flows in estuaries by tidal and gravitational eddy viscosity - shear covariance (ESCO), J. Geophys. Res., 122, 4217–4237, 2017.
    40. Burchard, H., N.B. Badurak, U. Gräwe, M. Knoll, V. Mohrholz, S. Müller, Salinity inversions in the thermocline under upwelling-favorable winds, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, doi:10.1002/2016GL072101, 2017. [pdf]
    41. Becherer, J., G. Flöser, L. Umlauf, and H. Burchard, Estuarine ciculation vs tidal pumping: Sediment transport in a well-mixed tidal inlet, J. Geophys. Res., 121, doi:10.1002/2016JC011640, 2016.
    42. Gräwe, U., T. Gerkema, M. Duran-Matute, T.H Badewien, E. Schulz, and H. Burchard, A numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea: skill assessment and analysis of hydrodynamics, J. Geophys. Res.,121, 5231–5251,
      doi:10.1002/2016JC011655, 2016.
    43. Mandal, S., H. Homma, A. Priyadarshi, H. Burchard, S.L. Smith, K.W. Wirtz, and H. Yamazaki, A one-dimensional physical-biological model of the impact of highly intermittent phytoplankton distributions,J. Plankton Res., doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbw019, 2016.
    44. Purkiani, K., J. Becherer, K. Klingbeil, and H. Burchard, Variability of estuarine circulation in a tidally energetic inlet with curvature, J. Geophys. Res., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JC010945, 2016.
    45. Becherer, J., M.T. Stacey, L. Umlauf, and H. Burchard, Lateral circulation generates flood-tide stratification and estuarine exchange flow in a curved channel, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 638-656, 2015.
    46. Burchard, H., and T.H. Badewien, Thermohaline residual circulation of the Wadden Sea, Ocean Dyn., 65, 1717-1730, 2015.
    47. Gräwe, U., P. Holtermann, K. Klingbeil, and H. Burchard, Advantages of vertically adaptive coordinates in numerical models of stratified shelf seas. Ocean Modelling, 92, 56-68, 2015.
    48. Gräwe, U., M. Naumann, V. Mohrholz, and H. Burchard, Anatomizing one of the largest saltwater inflows in the Baltic Sea in December 2014, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 7676-7697, 2015.
    49. Mohammadi-Aragh, M., K. Klingbeil, N. Brüggemann, C. Eden, and H. Burchard, The impact of advection schemes on lateral shear and baroclinic instabilities, Ocean Modelling, 94, 112-127, 2015.
    50. Purkiani, K., J. Becherer, G. Flöser, U. Gräwe, V. Mohrholz, H.M. Schuttelaars, and H. Burchard, Numerical analysis of stratification and de-stratification processes in a tidally energetic inlet with an ebb tidal delta, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 225-243, 2015.
    51. Radtke, H., and H. Burchard, A positive and multi-element conserving time stepping scheme for biogeochemical processes in marine ecoystem models, Ocean Modelling, 85, 32-41, 2015.
    52. Schulz, E., H.M. Schuttelaars, U. Gräwe, and H. Burchard, Impact of the depth-to-width ratio of a tidally energetic estuary on the residual along-channel circulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 2048-2069, 2015.
    53. Berdalet, E., M.A. McManus, O.N. Ross, H. Burchard, F.P. Chaves, J.S. Jaffe, I.R. Jenkinson, R. Kudela, I. Lips, U. Lips, A. Lucas, D. Rivas, M.C. Ruiz-de la Torre, J. Ryan, J.M. Sullivan, and H. Yamazaki, Understanding harmful algae in stratified systems: Review of progress and identification of gaps in knowledge. Deep Sea Res. II, 101, 4-20, 2014.
    54. Burchard, H., U. Gräwe, P. Holtermann, K. Klingbeil, and L. Umlauf, Turbulence closure modelling in coastal waters, Die Küste, 81, 69-87, 2014.
    55. Burchard, H., E. Schulz, and H.M. Schuttelaars, Impact of estuarine convergence on residual circulation in tidally energetic estuaries and inlets, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 913-919, 2014.
    56. Gräwe, U., H. Burchard, M. Müller, and H.M. Schuttelaars, Seasonal variability of M2 and M4 tidal constituents and its implications for the coastal residual sediment transport, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5563-5570, 2014.
    57. Holtermann, P., H. Burchard, U. Gräwe, K. Klingbeil, and L. Umlauf, Deep-water dynamics and boundary mixing in a non-tidal stratified basin: A modeling study of the Baltic Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 1465-1487, 2014.
    58. Klingbeil, K., M. Mohammadi-Aragh, U. Gräwe, and H. Burchard, Quantification of spurious dissipation and mixing – Discrete Variance Decay in a Finite-Volume framework, Ocean Modelling, 81, 49-64, 2014.
    59. Yamazaki, H., C. Locke. L. Umlauf, H. Burchard, T. Ishimaru, and D. Kamykowski, A Lagrangian model for phototaxis-induced thin layer formation, Deep Sea Res. II, 101, 193-206, 2014.
    60. Burchard, H. H.M. Schuttelaars, and W.R. Geyer, Residual sediment fluxes in weakly-to-periodically stratified estuaries and tidal inlets, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1841-1861, 2013.
    61. Gräwe, U., R. Friedland, and H. Burchard, The future of the Western Baltic Sea: two possible scenarios, Ocean Dynamics, 63, 901-921, 2013.
    62. Hofmeister, R., K. Bolding, R.D. Hetland, G. Schernewski, H. Siegel, and H. Burchard, The dynamics of cooling water discharge in a shallow, non-tidal embayment, Cont. Shelf Res., 71, 68-77, 2013.
    63. Klingbeil, K., and H. Burchard, Implementation of a direct nonhydrostatic pressure gradient discretisation into a layered ocean model, Ocean Modelling, 65, 64-77, 2013.
    64. Moghimi, S, K. Klingbeil, U. Gräwe, H. Burchard, A direct comparison of the depth-dependent radiation stress formulation and a vortex force formulation within a three-dimensional coastal ocean model, Ocean Modelling, 70, 132-144, 2013.
    65. Schippmann, B., G. Schernewski, U. Gräwe, H. Burchard, and T. Walczykiewicz, A model tool for bathing water quality management: A case study of Salomonella occurrence at the southern Baltic coast, Ocean & Coastal Management, 82, 71-84, 2013.
    66. Burchard, H., Quantitative analysis of numerically induced mixing and dissipation in discretisations of shallow water equations, International Jounal of Geomathematics, 3, 51-65, 2012.
    67. Burchard, H., and H.M. Schuttelaars, Analysis of tidal straining as driver for estuarine circulation in well mixed estuaries, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 261-271, 2012.
    68. Gräwe, U., and H. Burchard, Storm surges in the Western Baltic Sea, the present and a possible future, Climate Dynamics, 39, 165-183, 2012.
    69. Kärnä, T., V. Legat, E. Deleersnijder, and H. Burchard, Coupling of a discontinuous Galerkin finite element marine model with a finite difference turbulence closure model, Ocean Modelling, 47, 55-64, 2012.
    70. Rennau H., S. Schimmels, and H. Burchard, On the effect of structure-induced resistance and mixing on inflows into the Baltic Sea: a numerical model study, Coastal Engineering, doi: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2011.08.002, pp. 53-68, 2012.
    71. Smyth, W.D., H. Burchard, and L. Umlauf, Baroclinic interleaving instability: a second-moment closure approach, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 764-784, 2012.
    72. Wang, Z.B., P. Hoekstra, H. Burchard, H. Ridderinkhof, H.E. de Swart, and M.J.F. Stive, Morphodynamics of the Wadden Sea and its barrier island system, Ocean and Coastal Management, 68, 39-57, 2012.
    73. Becherer, J., H. Burchard, G.Flöser, V. Mohrholz, and L. Umlauf, Evidence of tidal straining in well-mixed channel flow from micro-structure observations, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L17611, doi: 10.1029/2011GL049005, 2011.
    74. Burchard, H., R.D. Hetland, E. Fischer, and H.M. Schuttelaars, Drivers of residual estuarine circulation in tidally energetic estuaries: Straight and irrotational channels with parabolic cross section, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 548-570, 2011.
    75. Flöser, G., H. Burchard, and R. Riethmüller, Observational evidence for estuarine circulation in the German Wadden Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 31, 1633-1639, 2011.
    76. Hofmeister, R., J.-M. Beckers, and H. Burchard, Realistic modelling of the major inflows into the central Baltic Sea in 2003 using terrain-following coordinates, Ocean Modelling, 39, 233-247, 2011.
    77. Schippmann, B., and H. Burchard, Rosenbrock methods in biogeochemical modelling - a comparison to Runge-Kutta methods and modified Patankar schemes, Ocean Modelling, 37, 112–121, 2011.
    78. Umlauf, L., H. Burchard, Diapycnal transport and mixing efficiency in stratified boundary layers near sloping topography. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 329–345, 2011.
    79. Yakushev, E., I. Kuznetsov, O. Podymov, H. Burchard, T. Neumann, F. Pollehne, Modelling the influence of oxygenated inflows on biogeochemical structure of the Gotland Sea, central Baltic Sea: changes in distribution of manganese, Computers and Geosciences, 37, 398-409, 2011.
    80. Umlauf, L., L. Arneborg, R. Hofmeister, and H. Burchard, Entrainment in shallow rotating gravity currents: a modelling study, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 1819-1834, 2010.
    81. Burchard, H., and R.D. Hetland, Quantifying the contributions of tidal straining and gravitational circulation to residual circulation in periodically stratified tidal estuaries, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 1243-1262, 2010.
    82. Hofmeister, R., H. Burchard, and J.-M. Beckers, Non-uniform adaptive vertical grids for 3D numerical ocean models, Ocean Modelling, 33, 70-86, 2010.
    83. Hense, I., and H. Burchard, Modelling cyanobacteria in shallow coastal seas, Ecological Modelling, 221, 238-244, 2010.
    84. Holtermann, P., H. Burchard, T. Jennerjahn, Hydrodynamics of the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Regional Environmental Change, 9, 245-258, 2009.
    85. Verspecht, F, H. Burchard, T.P. Rippeth, M.J. Howarth, A.J. Souza, and J.H. Simpson, Processes impacting on stratification in a region of freshwater influence: Application to Liverpool Bay, J. Geophys. Res.114, C11022, doi:10.1029/2009JC005475, 2009 .
    86. Burchard, H., Combined effects of wind, tide and horizontal density gradients on stratification in estuaries and coastal seas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2117-2136, 2009.
    87. Burchard, H., F. Janssen, K. Bolding, L. Umlauf, and H. Rennau, Model simulations of dense bottom currents in the Western Baltic Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 29, 205-220, 2009.
    88. Burchard, H., and T.P. Rippeth, Generation of bulk shear spikes in shallow stratified tidal seas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 969-985, 2009. Note: In the published version a number of errors had been introduced. See the final manuscript for a correct version. 
    89. Fischer, E., R. Hetland, H. Burchard, Numerical investigations of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipaption rate in the Rhine region of freshwater influence, Ocean Dynamics, 59, 629-641, 2009.
    90. Hofmeister, R., H. Burchard, K. Bolding, A three-dimensional model study on processes of stratification and de-stratification in the Limfjord, Cont. Shelf. Res., 29, 1515-1524, 2009.
    91. Reissmann, J., H. Burchard, R. Feistel, E. Hagen, H.U. Lass, V. Mohrholz, G. Nausch, L. Umlauf, and G. Wieczorek, State-of-the-art review on vertical mixing in the Baltic Sea and consequences for eutrophication, Progr. Oceanogr., 82, 47-80, 2009.
    92. Rennau, H., and H. Burchard, Quantitative analysis of numerically induced mixing in a coastal model application, Ocean Dynamics, 59, 671-687, 2009.
    93. Verspecht, F., T.P. Rippeth, J.H. Simpson, A.J. Souza, H. Burchard, M.J. Howarth, Residual circulation and stratification in the Liverpool Bay region of freshwater influence, Ocean Dynamics, 59, 765-779, 2009.
    94. Burchard, H., P.D. Craig, J.R. Gemmrich, H. van Haren, P.-P. Mathieu, H.E.M. Meier, W. A.M. Nimmo Smith, H. Prandke, T.P. Rippeth, E.D. Skyllingstad, W.D. Smyth, D.J.S. Welsh, and H.W. Wijesekera, Observational and numerical modeling methods for quantifying coastal ocean turbulence and mixing, Progr. Oceanogr., 76, 399-442, 2008.
    95. Burchard, H., G. Flöser, J. V. Staneva, T. H. Badewien, and R. Riethmüller, Impact of density gradients on net sediment transport into the Wadden Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 566-587, 2008.
    96. Burchard, H., and R. Hofmeister, A dynamic equation for the potential energy anomaly for analysing mixing and stratification in estuaries and coastal seas, Estuarine Coast.Shelf Sci., 77, 679-687, 2008. [Derivation of eq. (14) by Youwen Lan]
    97. Burchard, H., and H. Rennau, Comparative quantification of physically and numerically induced mixing in ocean models, Ocean Modelling, 20, 293-311, 2008.
    98. Deleersnijder, E., E. Hanert, H. Burchard, H.A. Dijkstra, On the mathematical stability of stratified flow models with local turbulence closure schemes, Ocean Dynamics, 58, 237-246, 2008.
    99. Kuznetzov, I., T. Neumann, and H. Burchard, Model study on the ecosystem impact of a variable C:N:P ratio for cyanobacteria in the Baltic Proper, Ecological Modelling, 219, 107-114, 2008.
    100. Arneborg, L., V. Fiekas, L. Umlauf, and H. Burchard, Gravity current dynamics and entrainment - a process study based on observations in the Arkona Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2094-2113, 2007.
    101. Maar, M., T. G. Nielsen, K. Bolding, H. Burchard, and A. W. Visser, Grazing effects of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) on the pelagic food web under different turbulence conditions, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 339, 199-213, 2007.
    102. Umlauf, L., L. Arneborg, H. Burchard, V. Fiekas, H.U. Lass, V. Mohrholz, and H. Prandke, The transverse structure of turbulence in a rotating gravity current, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L08601, doi:10.1029/2007GL029521, 2007.
    103. Weber, L., C. Voelker, A. Oschlies, and H. Burchard, Iron profiles and speciation of the upper water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site: A model based sensitivity study, Biogeosciences, 4, 689-706, 2007.
    104. Bruggeman, J., H. Burchard, B. Kooi, and B. Sommeijer, A second-order, unconditionally positive, mass-conserving integration scheme for biochemical systems, Appl. Num. Math., 57, 36-58, 2006.
    105. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, W. Kühn, A. Meister, T. Neumann, and L. Umlauf, Description of a flexible and extendable physical-biogeochemical model system for the water column, J. Mar. Syst., 61, 180-211, 2006.
    106. Meier, M., R. Feistel, J. Piechura, L. Arneborg, H. Burchard, V. Fiekas, N. Golenko, N. Kuzmina, V. Mohrholz, C. Nohr, V. T. Paka, J. Sellschopp, A. Stips, and V. Zhurbas, Ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water: a brief review of present knowledge from observations and models, Oceanologia, 48, 133-164, 2006.
    107. Sellschopp, J., L. Arneborg, M. Knoll, V. Fiekas, F. Gerdes, Hans Burchard, H. U. Lass, V. Mohrholz, L. Umlauf, Direct observations of a medium-intensity inflow into the Baltic Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 26, 2393-2414, 2006.
    108. Burchard, H., E. Deleersnijder, A. Meister, Application of modified Patankar schemes to stiff biogeochemical models for the water column, Ocean Dynamics, 55, 326-337, 2005.
    109. Burchard, H., H.U. Lass, V. Mohrholz, L. Umlauf, J. Sellschopp, V. Fiekas, K. Bolding, and L. Arneborg, Dynamics of medium-intensity dense water plumes in the Arkona Sea, Western Baltic Sea, Ocean Dynamics, 55, 391-402, 2005.
    110. Burchard, H., and L. Umlauf, Observations and mixed layer modelling of mixed layer turbulence: Do they represent the same statistical quantities ? Deep-Sea Research II, 52, 1069-1074, 2005.
    111. Stips, A., H. Burchard, K. Bolding, H. Prandke, A. Wüest, Measurement and simulation of viscous dissipation rates in the wave affected surface layer, Deep Sea Res. II, 52, 1133-1155, 2005.
    112. Umlauf, L., and H. Burchard, Second-order turbulence closure models for geophysical boundary layers. A review of recent work, Cont. Shelf Res., 25, 795-827, 2005.
    113. Burchard, H., and J.-M. Beckers, Non-uniform adaptive vertical grids in one-dimensional numerical ocean models, Ocean Modelling, 6, 51-81, 2004.
    114. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, and M. R. Villarreal, Three-dimensional modelling of estuarine turbidity maxima in a tidal estuary, Ocean Dynamics, 54, 250-265, 2004.
    115. Stips, A., K. Bolding, T. Pohlmann, H. Burchard, Simulating the temporal and spatial dynamics of the North Sea using the new model GETM (general estuarine transport model), Ocean Dynamics, 54, 266-283, 2004.
    116. Burchard, H., E. Deleersnijder, and A. Meister, A high-order conservative Patankar-type discretisation for stiff systems of production-destruction equations, Appl. Num. Math., 47, 1-30, 2003.
    117. Deleersnijder, E., and H. Burchard, Reply to Mellor's comments on "Stability of algebraic non-equilibrium second-order closure models" [Ocean Modelling 3 (2001) 33-50], Ocean Modelling, 5, 291-293, 2003.
    118. Stanev, E. V., J.-O. Wolff, H. Burchard, K. Bolding and G. Flöser, On the Circulation in the East Frisian Wadden Sea: Numerical modeling and data analysis, Ocean Dynamics, 53, 27-51, 2003.
    119. Umlauf. L., and H. Burchard, A generic length-scale equation for geophysical turbulence models, J. Mar. Res., 61, 235-265, 2003.
    120. Umlauf. L., and H. Burchard, Reply to: "Comments on 'A generic length-scale equation for geophysical turbulence models'" by L. Kantha and S. Carniel, J. Mar. Res., 61, 703-706, 2003.
    121. Umlauf. L., H. Burchard, and K. Hutter, Extending the k-omega turbulence model towards oceanic applications, Ocean Modelling, 5, 195-218, 2003.
    122. Bolding, K., H. Burchard, T. Pohlmann, and A. Stips, Turbulent mixing in the Northern North Sea: a numerical model study, Cont. Shelf Res., 22, 2707-2724, 2002.
    123. Burchard, H., Energy-conserving discretisation of turbulent shear and buoyancy production, Ocean Modelling, 4, 347-361, 2002.
    124. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, T. P. Rippeth, A. Stips, J. H. Simpson, and J. Sündermann, Microstructure of turbulence in the Northern North Sea: A comparative study of observations and model simulations, J. Sea Res., 47, 223-238, 2002.
    125. Goudsmit, H.-G., H. Burchard, F. Peeters, and A. Wuest, Application of k-epsilon turbulence models to enclosed basins - The role of internal seiches, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 3230, doi:10.1029/2001JC000954, 2002.
    126. Pietrzak, J.D., J.B. Jacobson, H. Burchard, H.-J. Vested, and O. Petersen, A three-dimensional hydrostatic model for coastal and ocean modelling using a generalised topography following co-ordinate system, Ocean Modelling, 4, 173-205, 2002.
    127. Simpson, J.H., H. Burchard, N.R. Fisher, and T.P. Rippeth, The semi-diurnal cycle of dissipation in a ROFI: model-measurement comparisons, Cont. Shelf Res., 22, 1615-1628, 2002.
    128. Stips, A., H. Burchard, K. Bolding, and W. Eifler, Modelling of convective turbulence with a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence closure scheme, Ocean Dynamics, 52, 153-168, 2002.
    129. Burchard, H., Note on the q2l equation by Mellor and Yamada [1982], J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1377-1387, 2001.
    130. Burchard, H., Simulating the wave-enhanced layer under breaking surface waves with two-equation turbulence models, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3133-3145, 2001.
    131. Burchard, H., and K. Bolding, Comparative analysis of four second-moment turbulence closure models for the oceanic mixed layer, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 1943-1968, 2001.
    132. Burchard, H., and E. D. Deleersnijder, Stability of algebraic non-equilibrium second-order closure models, Ocean Modelling, 3, 33-50, 2001.
    133. Beckers, J.-M., H. Burchard, E. Deleersnijder, and P.-P. Mathieu, On the numerical discretization of rotated diffusion operators in ocean models, Monthly Weather Rev., 128, 2711-2733, 2000.
    134. Burchard, H., Recalculation of surface slopes as forcing for numerical water column models of tidal flow, Appl. Math. Modelling, 23, 737-755, 1999.
    135. Burchard, H., and O. Petersen, Models of turbulence in the marine environment - A comparative study of two-equation turbulence models, J. Marine Sys., 21, 2-53, 1999.
    136. Beckers, J.-M., H. Burchard, J.-M. Campin, E. Deleersnijder, and P.-P. Mathieu, Another reason why simple discretizations of rotated diffusion operators cause problems in ocean models. Comments on the paper Isoneutral diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model by Griffies et al., J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 1552-1559, 1998.
    137. Burchard, H., and H. Baumert, The formation of estuarine turbidity maxima due to density effects in the salt wedge. A hydrodynamic process study, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 309-321, 1998.
    138. Burchard, H., O. Petersen, and T.P. Rippeth, Comparing the performance of the k-e and the Mellor-Yamada two-equation turbulence models, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10543-10554, 1998.
    139. Burchard, H., and O. Petersen, Hybridization between s and z coordinates for improving the internal pressure gradient calculation in marine models with steep bottom slopes, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids, 25, 1003-1023, 1997.
    140. Burchard, H., and H. Baumert, On the performance of a mixed layer model based on the k-e turbulence closure, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8523-8540, 1995.
    141. Burchard, H., A functional analytical proof of the Lax-Wendroff theorem, Z. angew. Math. Mech., 74, 493-495, 1994.

Book chapters:

  1. Nagai Takeyoshi, Auger Guillaume, Burchard Hans, Denman Ken and Yamazaki Hidekatsu.
    One-Dimensional Models. In Cochran, J. Kirk; Bokuniewicz, J. Henry; Yager, L. Patricia (Eds.)
    Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 3rd Edition. vol. 5, pp. 561-570,, 2019.
  2. Burchard, H., and U. Gräwe, Quantification of numerical and physical mixing in coastal ocean model applications. In: Ansorge, R., H. Bijl, A. Meister, and T. Sonar (eds.): Oberwolfach workshop: Recent developments in the numerics of non-linear hyperbolic conservations laws and their use in science and engineering. Springer, Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design,120, 89-103, 2012.
  3. Souza, A.J., H. Burchard, C. Eden, C. Pattiaratchi and H. van Haren, Coastal ocean turbulence and mixing. In: Coupled Coastal Wind, Wave and Current Dynamics (eds C. Mooers, P.Craig, N. Huang), Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK), in print.
  4. Gräwe, U., and H. Burchard, Regionalisation of climate scenarios for the Western Baltic Sea, in Schernewski, G., J. Hofstede, and T. Neumann (eds.), Global change and Baltic coastal zones, vol. 1 of Coastal Research Library, Springer, pp. 3-22, 2011.
  5. Yamazaki, H., H. Burchard, K.L. Denman, and T. Nagai, One-dimensional models, in Steele, J.H., S.A. Thorpe, and K.T. Turekian, Encyclopaedia of Ocean Sciences, Elsevier, pp. 208-217, 2009.
  6. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, M.R. Villarreal, T.P. Rippeth, N. Fisher, and A. Stips, The GOTM modelling system, pp. 213-224. In: Baumert, H.Z., J.H. Simpson, and J. Sündermann (eds.), Marine Turbulence: Theories, Observations and Models, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 630 pp., 2005.
  7. Burchard, H., E. Deleersnijder, and G. Stoyan, Some numerical aspects of turbulence-closure models, pp. 197-206. In: Baumert, H.Z., J.H. Simpson, and J. Sündermann (eds.), Marine Turbulence: Theories, Observations and Models, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 630 pp., 2005.
  8. Umlauf, L., and Burchard, H., A generic transport equation for the length scale in turbulent flows, pp. 188-196. In: Baumert, H., J.H. Simpson, and J. Sündermann (eds.), Marine Turbulence: Theories, Observations and Models, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 630 pp. 2005.
  9. Villarreal, M.R., K. Bolding, Burchard, H., and E. Demirov, Coupling of the GOTM turbulence module to some three-dimensional ocean models, pp. 225-237. In: Baumert, H.Z., J.H. Simpson, and J. Sündermann (eds.), Marine Turbulence: Theories, Observations and Models, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 630 pp. 2005.
  10. Harms, I.H., M.J. Karcher, and H. Burchard, The application of hydrodynamic circulation models for simulating oceanic dispersion of radioactivity. In: E.M. Scott (ed.), Modelling Radioactivity in the Environment, Section 1: Models and modeling, chapter 3: Modelling radioactivity in the marine environment, Elsevier, ISBN: 0-08-043663-3, 450 pp., 2003.
  11. Burchard, H., A. Stips, W. Eifler, K. Bolding, and M.R. Villarreal, Numerical simulation of dissipation measurements in non-stratified and strongly stratified estuaries. In: Yanagi, T. (ed.), Interactions between estuaries, coastal seas and shelf seas, Terra Publishing Company, Tokyo, pp. 1-18, 2000.

Editorial work:

  1. Burchard, H., J.-M. Beckers (eds.), Turbulence Re-revisited, 39th Liege Colloquium & 3rd Warnemünde Turbulence Days, 7-11 May, 2007, Liege, Belgium. (Journal of Marine Systems, special issue 77 (2009)4).
  2. Burchard, H., Harff, J., Schubert, H. (eds.), Baltic Sea Science Congress 2007, Rostock, Germany, 19-23 March 2007. (Journal of Marine Systems, special issue, 74 (2008), Supplement I, S1-S154)
  3. Burchard, H., L. Umlauf, F. Peters (eds.), Impact of small-scale physics on marine biology. Selected papers from the 2nd Warnemünde Turbulence Days 28-30 September 2005, Rostock, Germany. (Journal of Marine Systems, special issue, 70 (2008)3-4)
  4. Muench, R., McDougall, T., and Burchard, H. (eds.), Ocean Mixing 2004 Special Issue, papers presented at the Ocean Mixing Conference, October 11-14, 2004 in Victoria, Canada. (Deep-Sea Research II, special issue, 53 (2006)1-2)
  5. Burchard, H. (guest ed.): Part 3: Numerical and computational methods, pp. 157-239. In: Baumert, H.Z., J.H. Simpson, and J. Sündermann (eds.), Marine Turbulence: Theories, Observations and Models, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 630 pp., 2005.
  6. Burchard, H. (guest ed.): Part 4: Boundary layers, pp. 241-314. In: Baumert, H.Z., J.H. Simpson, and J. Sündermann (eds.), Marine Turbulence: Theories, Observations and Models, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 630 pp., 2005.
  7. Burchard, H., and L. Umlauf (eds.), WTD 2003 Special Issue, papers presented at the First Warnemünde Turbulence Days, September 17-19, 2003 in Warnemünde, Germany. (Deep-Sea Research II, special issue), vol. 52, 1069-1357, 2005.
  8. Burchard, H., I. Grabemann and J. Kappenberg (eds.), Second PECS'02 special issue, papers presented at the 11th Biennial Conference on Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas, September 17-20, 2002 in Hamburg, Germany. (Ocean Dynamics, special issue. 54(2004)3-4)
  9. Burchard, H., I. Grabemann and J. Kappenberg (eds.), First PECS'02 special issue, papers presented at the 11th Biennial Conference on Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas, September 17-20, 2002 in Hamburg, Germany. (Ocean Dynamics, special issue. 53(2003)3)

Other publications:



  1. Burchard, H., A. Leder, M. Markofsky, R. Hofmeister, F. Hüttmann, H. U. Lass, J.-E. Melskotte, P. Menzel, V. Mohrholz, H. Rennau, S. Schimmels, A. Szewczyk, and L. Umlauf, Quantification of Water Mass Transformations in the Arkona Sea – Impact of Offshore Wind Farms - QuantAS-Off. Final Report. Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde. Rostock, Germany, 2010. [pdf]
  2. Burchard, H., G. Schernewski, O. Bittner, K. Bolding, M. Gerth, R. Hetland, R. Hofmeister, S. Maack, T. Neumann, H. Siegel, P. Springer, and I. Stottmeister, Physikalische und ökologische Auswirkungen einer Kühlwasserausbreitung im Greifswalder Bodden - Endbericht, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany, 145 pp., 2008. [pdf]
  3. Menzel, P., A. Leder, H. Burchard, Offshore-Windparks in der Ostsee - Strömungstechnische Auswirkungen von Offshore-WEA auf das Ökosystem, LandesTechnologieAnzeiger Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 3, 4-5, 2008.
  4. Bodungen, v., B., M. E. Böttcher, H.-J. Brumsack, H. Burchard, F. Colijn, S. Dick, R. Ebinghaus, K.-C. Emeis, W. Fennel, B. Flemming, G. Gönnert, G. Graf, D. Hebbeln, H. Kremer, S. Krüger, G. Liebezeit, K. Reise, D. Schaller, D. Schiedeck, H. Schlünzen, F. Schroeder, D. Schulz-Bull, U. Sommer, V. Storch, H., A. Temming, M. Türkay, M. Wahl and K. Wirtz, Changing coastal seas - challenges for coastal and shelf sea research in Germany. 26 S. (KDM-Denkschrift), 2007.

  5. Burchard, H., Können Windparks die Ostsee aufmischen ? Ostseesplitter, Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany, 4 pp., 2006.
  6. Umlauf, L., K. Bolding, and H. Burchard. GOTM – Scientific Documentation. Version 3.2. No. 63 of Marine Science Reports, Baltic Sea Research Institute, Warnemünde, Germany, 2005. [pdf]
  7. Burchard, H. and K. Bolding, GETM, a general estuarine transport model. Scientific Documentation, European Commission, Report EUR 20253, 157 pp., 2002. [pdf] [link to EU]
  8. Burchard, H., B. Gardeike, I. Grabemann, J. Kappenberg (eds.), Extended Abstracts for the 11th International Biennial Conference on Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas, September 17-20, 2002 in Hamburg, Germany, GKSS Research Centre, 2002, 487 pp. [pdf]
  9. Burchard, H., and K. Bolding, Ein public-domain General Ocean Turbulence Model, DGM-Mitteilungen, 2/00, 14-17, 2000.
  10. Burchard, H., K. Bolding, M.R. Villarreal, GOTM, a general ocean turbulence model. Theory, implementation and test cases, European Commission, Report EUR 18745, 103 pp., 1999. [pdf]
  11. Burchard, H., Presentation of a new numerical model for turbulent flow in estuaries and wadden seas, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Hydroinformatics, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 24-26, 1998, Balkema, Rotterdam, 41-48, 1998.
  12. Jakobsen, J.B., J.D. Pietrzak, H.J. Vested, and Burchard, H., A generalised vertical coordinate system for environmental 3D modelling, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Hydroinformatics, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 24-26, 1998, Balkema, Rotterdam, 137-141, 1998.
  13. Burchard, H., Three-dimensional numerical modelling of turbulent flows in estuaries and wadden seas. Theory and test cases. Technical Note No. I.97.180, Space Applications Institute, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, 42 pp., 1997.
  14. Burchard, H., The 3D hydrostatic equations in a generalized vertical coordinate system. Theory and test cases. International Research Centre for Computational Hydrodynamics, Danish Hydraulic Institute, Horsholm, Denmark, 56 pp., 1996.
  15. Burchard, H., Turbulenzmodellierung mit Anwendungen auf thermische Deckschichten im Meer und Strömungen in Wattengebieten. PhD thesis. University of Hamburg. GKSS Research Centre, GKSS 95/E/30, 299 pp., 1995.
  16. Bredendiek, E., H. Burchard, U. Grothkopf, H.J. Oberle, G. Opfer, and B. Werner (eds.), Lothar Collatz 1910-1990, Hamburger Beiträge zur Angewandten Mathematik, Reihe B, Bericht 23, 137 pp., 1992.

Submitted manuscripts:

Legay, A., B. Deremble, H. Burchard, Derivation and implementation of a non-gradient term to improve the oceanic convection representation within the k-ɛ parameterization, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., submitted January 2024.

Li, X., E. Chrysagi, K. Klingbeil, H. Burchard, Impact of islands on tidally dominated river plumes: a high-resolution modelling study, J. Geophys. Res., submitted October 2023.

Mohammadi-Aragh, M., O. Zeising, A. Humbert, K. Klingbeil, J. Schaffer, R. Timmermann, H. Burchard, Basal melting at the floating tongue of the 79º North Glacier – on the impacts of ice-shelf basal channels, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., submitted December 2020.